The questions you pose do not have a straight-forward and simple answer because these terms include not so much a line of products but more of an evolution. For instance, the Chronometre Royal began its journey as a pocket watch and was introduced as a wrist watch in 1953. As for the Malte line, the strictist interpretation of when it was introduced would be to look at when the Tonneau shape was introduced at Vacheron Constantin as the collection has gone through a variance of shapes. As for the Patrimony line, it has gone through a number of developments and now comprises of two distinct lines, which are the Contemporaine and Traditionelle. Of course, there are collections that cross these lines such as the Excellence Platine collection, which was introduced in 2006, or the made-to order Ateliers that allows for a collaborative effort between the owner and watchmakers.
In the strictest sense, and hopefully I am not mistaken, your answers would be:
1. As I mentioned, the Patrimony Collection has two lines in current production. The Patrimony Traditionelle Line was introduced in 2007 and the Patrimony Contemporine was introduced, I believe, in 1955 to commemorate Vacheron's 200th anniversary. As for when the term Patrimony was first used to describe a collection, unfortunately I cannot think of the exact date :(
2. The Malte line just celebrated its 100th anniversary this year, so your answer here is most likely 1912. On this point, I refer you to Alex's discussion on the Lounge of the SIHH 2012 releases and specifically the anniversary edition: http://www.thehourlounge.com/thread/view/sihh-2012-a-personal-journey_65435_65435.html
3. The Chronometre Royal line was first introduced in 1907 and in 1953 as a wristwatch, and on this matter I higly recommend you refer to Alex's excellent article on this here on the Lounge http://www.thehourlounge.com/index.php?module=Thread&action=view&threadid=2998&id=2998
I hope this informatoin helps!