Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Last January, I picked up my second Vacheron Malte Chronograph. I had sold my first one a few years earlier to buy another Vacheron horological bauble, but I really missed the Malte: Its rose gold case, beautifully guillochéd dial and especially the Calibre 1141 movement.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me Photo courtesy of Vacheron and The Hour Lounge

 

I already owned two Vacheron chronographs: the 47101 in platinum and the Malte Chrono Perpetual, both with the 1141 movement. I knew that the Vacheron caliber was not an in-house design, but one based on a highly successful Lemania design. I also knew thet the Lemania design had been used in one form or another by Omega, Patek Philippe, Roger Dubuis and Ulysse Nardin.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

So it was time to dig a little deeper into the Lemania story to see how a 70 year old design which hads endured for so many years and becoame so ubiquitous.

We go back to the mid-19th century Switzerland and the two Lugrin brothers. Both excelled at watch movement design, particularly chronographs. Henry Alfred left for America in 1868 where he designed chronographs and repeaters for Waltham and Wittnauer.

Alfred, the younger of the two, remained in Switzerland, trained and worked at Le Coultre and eventually designed and patented a chronograph movement which caught the eye of Longines. They licensed it and used it in the production of their own chronographs watches. Then in 1884, Alfred founded his own company A. Lugrin S.A. and continued to register design patents,   gain awards for his designs and garnered a well-deserved reputation as a designer and innovator.

Sometime around March 1918, A. Lugrin was  morphed into the Lemania Watch Company. And in 1920, Alfred’s son-in-law, Marius Meylan took over as managing director.

By the 1930’s many of the watch companies were falling on hard times.  Some companies failed and some were able to merge resources and survive. Two of the latter were Omega and Tissot which formed the Societé Suisse pour l’Industrie Horologère (SSIH). In 1932, Lemania’s poor financial position prompted Meylan to approach SSIH to absorb the company. They did so and it turned into a win-win situation. Lemania received much needed capital to continue R&D and production and Omega would be able to make use of the Lemania designs. The use of these designs led to Omega being selected as the official supplier of timekeepers to the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles, a role it has maintained to this day.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Opening Ceremony of the 1932 Olympics at the L.A. Coliseum

At this point, I could say: “the rest is history”, but there was more and better!

The “more and better” came in the person of Albert-Gustave Piguet who joined the technical division of Lemania at l’Orient in 1934. Lemania was by then a wholly-owned subsidiary of SSIH.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Albert-Gustave Piguet (1914-2000)

Albert Piguet as the name indicates came from a distinguished family of watchmakers. His great grand-father was co-founder of Piguet Frères. His father was deputy director of LeCoultre in Sentier and went on to be Director of Zenith until his retirement in 1928.

Albert-Gustave came from the same mold as the Frères Lugrin. He not only managed Lemania’s R&D but was also one of their leading designers.

In 1942, at the behest of Omega, Piguet designed and built a totally new chronograph, the caliber 27-CHRO-12. It was a 27mm diameter movement with a 12 hour totalizer. It was thin and was in fact at that time the smallest chronograph movement made. The movement was a tri-compax (3 registers) design using a column wheel and having a  réserve de marche of 46 hours…all in all an outstanding achievement. Within 3 years the design was improved to include shock protection (Incabloc), and a new antimagnetic balance spring. Other refinements ensued and in 1946 the movement was introduced as the Omega 321, destined to run the famous Speedmaster chronograph.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Before continuing this saga, I am going to digress a little to talk about chronograph function.

Everyone knows what a chronograph does…from ther Ggreek “chronos” – “time” and “graphis” – “writer” or “writing” or more liberally translated as “recording”.

The early designs had no way to control the engagement of gears when the Start, Stop and especially the Reset buttons were pressed. The column wheel allowed the functions to perform in the correct order. However, column wheels are expensive to produce and maintain and many manufacturers have gone to other systems using cams and levers. Nevertheless, iIt does remain a feature of high end chronographs. There was also a second problem. Repeated engagement of the gear wheels, starting, stopping and resetting put significant stress and wear on them, causing broken teeth and failure of the mechanism.

The problem of engaging the gears also created the “jumping hand” on starting the chronograph function. Several solutions were tried to smooth out the start of the hand. One was to make the centre chronograph wheel for the hand large with many small teeth and place it very close to the intermediate and 4th wheel (from which it derived its power). This arrangement created a much smoother though not perfect engagement, minimizing but not completely eliminating the small starting jump of the hand. In addition this system and others like it, which relied on an engagement-disengagement action, created additional wear on the gears. There are many illustrations, schematics and explanations of the chronograph’s parts and functions in: ”The Theory of Horology” by Reymondin et al.

The problem was finally solved by introducing a vertical clutch mechanism incorporating a rotating pinion and lever. With thius system, the teeth of the wheels wcould always be meshed. By engaging the clutch, the chronograph would start smoothly without any jump. The mechanism is quite delicate and expensive to produce. (A few good illustrations of this vertical clutch can be found in George Daniels’ “Watchmaking”.

Piguet may have initially incorporated a vertical clutch to the Omega 321 but I am not sure. I think that given the thinness of the movement, however, he may have decided upon or developed a horizontal clutch. But by the time it got to the Vacheron caliber 1141’s predecessor, it likely had a horizontal clutch mechanism.

Now back to the Lemania story.

The Omega 321 also went by another name: Lemania 2310. This was the movement that captured the interest of several haut-gamme manufactures such as Vacheron, Patek and Breguet. The 2310 was upgraded to the Calibre 2320 increasing the number of jewels from 17 to 21. The swan-neck regulator was introduced as well as a rhodium-plated finish. I believe that this Lemania caliber included a clutch mechanism and it may have in fact been an horizontal rathsr than a vertical clutch. It was in fact this caliber that was used by Vacheron as an ébauche for its 1141 movement. The caliber has been used for several decades, finding a home in the Les Historique Chronograph, the Malte Chronograph, the Malte Perpetual Chronograph and the Patrimony Traditionelle Chronograph. Only this year with the introduction of the Harmony Chronograph with its Calibre 3300 dual column-wheel, horizontal clutch movement  has the venerable 1141 been replaced. However, a smaller chronograph in the Harmony line (for smaller wrists) exists and uses a cal. 1142, based on the 1141.

In 1990 Vacheron introduced the Les Historiques Chronograph series as the Reference 47101. After 1999, it was renamed the 47111 with the addition of a screw back and some minor modifications to the movement. It was a tribute to and replacement for the iconic 4178.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and MePhoto couertesy of Alex Ghotbi and The Hour Lounge

The movement that Vacheron used in its new chronograph was the Lemania 2320-based Calibre 1141. This is a robust, beautiful chronograph movement using a column wheel, Breguet overcoil balance spring, a horizontal clutch which also helped keep the movement thin, and an elegant swan-neck regulator. It had a rate of 2.5 Hz – 18000 vph and a reserve of 48 hours. Vacheron Constantin was not the only manufacturer to know a good thing when they saw it. Patek Philippe, Breguet, Roger Dubuis and Ulysse Nardin also used this Lemania movement in their own chronographs.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

The 47101/47111 became a very popular chronograph and has remained so to this day, having become almost as iconic as the 4178.

The onset of the new millennium heralded a desire for a larger watch case. Obligingly, Vacheron introduced the Malte Chronograph, which for me is the epitome of chronographs. The Malte line was not everyone’s “cup of tea”, but I found the retro Art Deco lugs to be a beautiful artistic touch. The guillochéd dial was another wonderful touch, although the watch also came in the “sand-blasted” dial Excellence Platine version. The watch also sported blue chronograph and totalizer pointers and both a telemetric and tachymetric scale.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

All in all, for me, at least, it was a perfect combination. Vacheron turned to the Calibre 1141 for this watch, which iss finished in the typically exquisite Vacheron fashion, with attention to every detail and every tiny component.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Vacheron also released the Malte Perpetual Calendar Chronograph in gold and platinum around the same time also utilizing the Calibre 1141 movement.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me      Lemania, Vacheron and Me

The dial has one of the loveliest engraved moon phases ever to a grace a watch, as the photos attest.

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me    Lemania, Vacheron and Me

 

More recently, Vacheron chose to introduce this Caliber 1141once again in their Patrimony Traditionelle line.

But here I will step back a bit for an interesting comparison.

Lemania not only made movements but for a short period of time, they also produced watches although production numbers were small. They made watches for the Czech and Swedish air forces and for the British Defense Ministry.

Around 1950, they manufactured a lovely chronograph using the 2310 movement.. It was 38mm diameter and 8.5mm in thickness. It was pink gold with sword hands, applied markers with numerals at 12 and 6 o’clock. and a bicompax dial with sunken registers.

Here are some photos:

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me      Lemania, Vacheron and Me

The movement uses a column wheel, the “Breguet” overcoil and gold-plated bridges. It is nicely finished but as you can see, not to the standards of Vacheron.

Above photos of this beatiful 1950 Lemania Chronograph courtesy of Steve G.

Does it look familiar? It should!

Here is the Vacheron Traditionelle Chronograph (Photos courtesy of Vacheron-Constantin):

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

Lemania, Vacheron and Me

 Perhaps the 1950 Lemania was the inspiration for the later Vacheron chronographs. But as one can clearly seen the Vacheron finish makes the Lemania movement look very ordinary.

But what happened to Lemania ultimately?

In the late 1970’s they separated from SSIH through a management buy-back and resurrected itself as Nouvelle Lemania. For about 5 years after that, in the ealy 1980’s, they owned Heuer and supplied their chronograph movements until the TAG acquired the Heuer brand in 1985.

Lemania formed a close association with Breguet after the latter was purchased from Chaumet.  Lemania continued to supply movements to a number of Swiss and German manufacturers even after they were fully acquired by Breguet  in 1992 and eventually folded into the Swatch Group.

To optimize their R&D, and movement design and production, Swatch built a new  facility in L’Abbaye in 1996, restored and reequipped the original building in L’Orient in 1996. A few years later, the Lemania sign was removed and replaced. The new sign read: “Montres Breguet, S.A.”

The 100 plus years of Lemania had come to an end. But it has left an enduring legacy which has permeated the watch industry and had a clear and enduring effect on chronograph design which we can see even to the present day.

(I am indebted to Steve G. and his descriptions and photos; The Lemania Legacy by Anthony Young,  The Baily Blog,  and Alex Ghotbi’s articles on The Hour Lounge, among others for their excellent articles on Lemania and chronographs.)

 

 

 

JB
08/15/2015 - 22:37
4Js
08/17/2015 - 00:23
08/17/2015 - 03:28
JB
08/18/2015 - 15:14
08/17/2015 - 21:33
JB
08/18/2015 - 15:46
JB
08/18/2015 - 17:15
03/29/2016 - 16:11
Thank you so much JB for this article!!!
08/16/2015 - 16:38

I've learned alot about the history of this classic movement and the people behind it! yes

I nominate this to be in the Recommended Section.

Re: Thank you so much JB for this article!!!
08/18/2015 - 15:07

Many thanks for your kind words, Dan.

I'm glad you found it interesting.

Best,

Joseph

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber
08/16/2015 - 16:43

Wonderful narrative and photographs, Joseph.  Something to return to again and again, obviously for the Recommended Section enlightened.  Even though "in-house" is the strategy today, it was not the practice until the 20th century.  Today the goal is often reached through the paper exercise of buying a movement specialist.

L'Abbaye is a wonderful place and Breguet looks very much at home there...

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber

Re: Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber
08/17/2015 - 03:48

I must say I enjoyed these photos very much. Is that a Norman tower? Looks like one.

Dave

Re: Brilliant story of a beautiful caliber
08/18/2015 - 15:08

Thanks Dean.

Your photos bring the region's history to life. Interesting from the road signs how close together those watch towns are!

Joseph

Re: Lemania, Vacheron and Me
08/16/2015 - 19:10

This is a wonderful, well-written and thorough study of the history of a beautiful chronograph. You've obviously done a great deal of work on this!

Your article must be accessible to all chronophiles. (Not sure if that's a word...)

Thank you, JB. Now I'm going to read it again.

Dave

Re: Re: Lemania, Vacheron and Me
08/18/2015 - 15:10

Thanks very much, Dave.

I found it a fascinating subject and learned quite a bit investigating the history.

Regards,

Joseph

Joseph, a fantastic post.
08/17/2015 - 00:23

I know this must have been a lot of effort.  It is most appreciated. 

 

For me, this movement is an apex in a collection.  I have three, and would like even more. I never tire of it. I am so happy VC has continued to evolve the movement with the 1142. I want to see what is next for this 1142. Hope I don't have to wait too long. :-)

 

best

 

joe

Re: Joseph, a fantastic post.
08/18/2015 - 15:12

Thanks Joe.

I appreciate your comments and I totally agree with your sentiments regarding the movement.

As for waiting too long... well, as you already know, the wait is over (LOL)

Hope to see you soon.

Best,

Joseph

Bravo Joseph!
08/17/2015 - 03:28

An excellent piece of journalism about one of the greatest movements of all times and the men who created it.  Well done.

Re: Bravo Joseph!
08/18/2015 - 15:14

Thank you Michael.

I am very pleased you liked it.

The movement is indeed one of the greatest enduring legacies of chronograph history.

Best,

Joseph

a wonderfully detailed and well written article, thank you sir! Not to forget the new 1142 which is
08/17/2015 - 10:54

a modified version of the 1141 previously used by VC but now with Geneva Seal which shall be housed in something really interesting soon....

Alex, I am guessing a Historiques Chronograph.
08/17/2015 - 13:55

...

Re: a wonderfully detailed and well written article, thank you sir! Not to forget the new 1142 which is
08/18/2015 - 15:16

Thanks Alex.

You didn't waste much time in introducing the new watch! :-)

That new 1142 movement, as I mentioned elsewhere is the most beautiful version of the Lemania ever made.

I think Piguet would have bee very proud of Vacheron!

Best,

Joseph

Thanks for this delightful and informative post, Joseph
08/17/2015 - 14:58

 This is a fascinating read for anyone who loves the Lemania movements.  I am very glad to have this movement in my collection, as well. 

You are not the only collector I know with several watches housing the cal 1141 in one form or another.  wink

 

Did I miss the date in your article, but when was the Lemania 2320 born?  The VC cal. 1141 was launched in 1990 with the Historiques Chronographe, correct?  But how long before was the Lemania 2320 in existence?  

Bravo!

Robert

Re: Thanks for this delightful and informative post, Joseph
08/18/2015 - 16:02

Thank you Robert for your kind words.

As for your question..I don't have a direct answer.

The Lemania chrono illustrated on Steve G's site in from the early 1950's. I know that Omega continued to use their cal. 321 on their SpeedMaster between 1957 and 1965, their Speedy Pro from 1965-1968 and their DeVille model as well.

Omega went a different route as well in developing their cal 861 based on the lemaia design but significantly altered. They replaced the column wheel with a shuttle cam, which was cheaper to make and maintain. Several other changes were also made.

I think the changes in the 2310 probably began in the late 40's and continued into the 50's. But as for an exact date or year, I don't know. I checked further on the subject but was unable to find an answer.

As for VC's use of the calibre, and here I am only speculating, as why the 1141 was introduced well after the 2320 was available:

Vacheron had considerable success with the 4178 and they likely felt no need to replace it for several decades. But whether they decided on a new chrono in the 90's and looked for a different movement, or the reverse, discovering the movement and then decciding to built a new chrono around it, only VC knows.

Vacheron was able to license production of the calibre for in-house manufacture and that probablyy took years of negotiation before production began.

There may have been other reasons as well.

Best,

Joseph

Very interesting material to read
08/17/2015 - 16:18

A movement we see in many watches, always superb but I didn't know that much about its history.

Thank you very much for the article.

Re: Very interesting material to read
08/18/2015 - 15:42

Thanks, James.

You are most welcome.

Joseph

A painstaking piece of research...
08/17/2015 - 17:08

Joseph, you seldom leave a stone unturned and this contribution is no exceptionyes.

A most enjoyable and enlightening feature beautifully interwoven with well crafted photographs alongside excellent 'story line' copy...

Your commitment and dedication is duly acknowledged with grateful thanks.

Best wishes

Tony

Re: A painstaking piece of research...
08/18/2015 - 15:43

Many thanks, Tony.

As usual your words are too kind. But thank you so much for your gracious comments.

Best,

Joseph

Joseph! Their is only one word to show my appreciation for
08/17/2015 - 20:08

such a magnificent piece. Bravo!!!

Best to all you great fellows ( in the gender neutral sense of course),

Best,

Tim

Re: Joseph! Their is only one word to show my appreciation for
08/18/2015 - 15:48

Thanks so much, Tim.

Hope all is well.

Best,

Joseph

Fabulous assembly JOseph
08/17/2015 - 21:33

The Salmon Historiques, is special one of the most elegant chronograph ever made, the salmon dial with the platinum is to die for.

And two other marvels, a weakness for the chronoQP and that magical moon ,.

Last thing to these, the beautiful work done on all these dials with the guilloche, it could have been simple but VC chose the noble way.

Tthanks Joseph for that celebration of Lemania and Vacheorn art

François

Re: Fabulous assembly JOseph
08/18/2015 - 15:46

Thank you for your kind comments.

I am very pleased that you enjoyed it.

I know several memebers of the Lounge own the classic 47101/111 in PT with the salmon dial. I think Vacheron made a very wise decicion to introduce that watch with the 1141 calibre. They did a fantastic job with it as well as with the subsequent models.

Regards,

Joseph

Thank you for this interesting article [nt]
08/18/2015 - 10:49
Re: Thank you for this interesting article [nt]
08/18/2015 - 15:47

You're most welcome. I am delighted you enjoyed it.

Joseph

Great article as always, JB!
08/18/2015 - 16:23

Hi JB.

It's been a while but it's good to see you haven't lost the touch (great read, as usual!), and your taste in watches is still impeccable. 

Just like you, I also have a soft spot for the Malte Chrono in RG, and I agree with the things you said about it. Of course, the 4178 is still my favorite vintage chrono, or maybe my favorite chrono, period. 

Looking forward to reading your thoughts on the new Harmony chrono and its in-house movement (..or let me know if you've done that already)!

Kazumi devil

 

 

 

Re: Great article as always, JB!
08/18/2015 - 17:04

How are you, Kazumi.

Very nice to hear from you and thank you so much for your kind words.

The Harmony movement is spectacularly finished but I have not had a chance to dealve into its details. But as much as I like it the new Chrono with the 1142 movement, as many have echoed, is a real home-run!

Best wishes,

Joseph

Yes, the Cornes de Vache is a looker...
08/18/2015 - 18:09

A shift in priorities (9 yr old daughter and new house) means I have to put my horological aspirations on hold... But that doesn't mean I don't try to keep abreast with the latest developments. Well, I'm not as active as before, but I still share my love for things VC in the other circles/fora that I participate in (self-proclaimed VC ambassador and holder of the fort!).

Anyway, I agree with you on the new Historiques CdV chrono. My only pet peeve (with most chronos) is the cross-eyed look. I was wondering if this could have been improved (i.e., if the counters could have been spaced farther apart) if the new in-house chrono movement was used instead. Well, I'm sure we will see something along those lines in the not so distant future.

Let us know if you decide to get a Cornes de Vache, Joseph. I'm sure it will look good on you! wink

Kazumi devil

 

 

Re: Lemania, Vacheron and Me
08/18/2015 - 17:15

Just a couple of addtional points.

I confess I was a bit remiss in not including Bill Lind in my list of credits. I was a bit rushed on Sunday to get this article on line, that I forgot about Bill's article.

He has an excellent although personal take on the VC watches using the 1141 calibre. it's on the Purists site. (Sorry about that Bill)

On a humorous note, someone on Timezone, although I can't remember who, possibly Paul Butros, showed the "alien in the machine" of the 1141 calibre. Here is a photo of it devouring the column wheel:

 Lemania, Vacheron and Me

But there is also a second alien, although just a face whose eyes are supporting the first alien:

 Lemania, Vacheron and Me

He/she looks a bit concerned, possibly because the first alien has been standing on his head for so long!

I do believe it was Paul that found the hungry alien, :-) (nt)
08/18/2015 - 17:28
Joseph, I am really impressed by your article, so detailed and illustrated
08/18/2015 - 18:46

I learn a lot about the History of Lemania movement. Congrats ++++

 

Alex had written here in a previous post:

"Ref 47101 / 47111 Les Historiques Collection

Most certainly THE chronograph which symbolises best the modern Vacheron Constantin chronograph in the eyes of aficionados and collectors. An instant classic and a modern reinterpretation of the ref 4178. In the collection “Les Historiques” until 2004 it evolved into ref 47111 in 1999 when a screwd back was added and certain modifications made to the movement. The calibre housed in this reference is nothing other than the Lemania based cal 1140/1141 lauded as being one of the best manual wind chronograph movements of its epoch. The ref 47101 / 47111 was made in yellow gold, platinum (with an extra rare version with guilloche salmon dial) as well as a 25 piece limited edition in platinum with black dial made for the Taiwanese market.I do not have total production numbers but the 47101 was made in about 1250 pieces in yellow gold and 300 in platinum. "

 

One question:

I would like to learn more about these modifications made to the movement (between 47101 and 47111).

 

For instance, my 47111 has a 55 to 56 hours of power reserve (measured at 55h50). Lemania was supposed to have a 48H PR. Is it due to these modifications in order to compete with PP5070 with its 60h PR?

Thanks.

Cheers,

Liger

Re: Joseph, I am really impressed by your article, so detailed and illustrated
08/18/2015 - 19:25

Thank you, Liger for your kind comments.

And thank you for your additional input.

Most of the articles that I read were not specific about the changes except that the back was replaced. Instead of using a snap back to secure it, they changed it to a screw-down back.

Perhaps they changed the barrel or the mainspring to get the RdM up to 56 hours.

According to some comments Alex made back in 2003 when he moderated the VC forum on the Purists, the only other modification was some minor changes to the gear train.

Best,

Joseph

Now, inhouse VC Manufacture, Alex may add some more specific details
08/18/2015 - 19:54

wink

Thanks in advance Alex,

Best,

Liger

Re: Lemania, Vacheron and Me
08/19/2015 - 11:12

JB your post is extremely interesting and informative. Enjoyed reading it. Thanks.

 

Regards,

 

Vishal.

Re: Re: Lemania, Vacheron and Me
08/19/2015 - 17:10

Thank you for your kind words.

I am delighted that you liked it.

I see you have added a beautiful piece with the 1141 movement.

May it bring happy time and wonderful memories.

Joseph

It's like this forum had been reading my mind, and devilishly taunting me...
08/24/2015 - 13:53

Thanks for this great article Joseph.  I couldn't really add to the numerous well-deserved accolades above.  I throughly enjoyed the read.  I swear, sometimes it feels like this forum is psychic.  Less than a week before you posted this, I found a NOS (New Old Stock) White Gold Malte Chronograph at an Authorized Dealer.  I had been thinking about it and laboring over it.  I had not really PLANNED another purchase this soon, but it is said that life is what happens while you are making other plans.  Anyway, as I am debating the merits of altering my plans in order to add a Lemania Chrono to my small collection (aka trying to talk myself out of it), this article hits and reminds me of what an exceptional movement this is.  Then, of course the release of the absolutely breathtaking new Historiques piece.  Anyway, thanks for the amazing and informative post and for fanning a fire that I was already half-heartedly trying to extingiush.

PS: If anyone else is interested in an NOS WG Malte Chrono, let me know.  It is a great find for someone.  Plus, if one of you buys it, then a) I can stop obsessing and b) I might be able to work out visitation rights!

It's like this forum had been reading my mind, and devilishly taunting me...

It's like this forum had been reading my mind, and devilishly taunting me...

(Pardon the involuntary rotation)

Great article and pictures
03/29/2016 - 16:11

Thanks for taking the time and sharing considerable knowledge!